Counterfeiting is the practice of manufacturing goods, often of inferior
quality, and selling them under a brand name without the brand owner’s
authorization. Generally, counterfeit goods are sold under a trademark
that is identical to or substantially indistinguishable from the brand
owner's trademark for the same goods, without the approval or oversight
of the trademark owner. Many well-known brands, spanning various
industries, are victims of counterfeiting. Counterfeiting can be
distinguished from traditional trademark infringement or passing off,
which involves the use of confusingly similar trademarks or service
marks on or in association with similar—as opposed to fake—products
or services. The manufacturing of counterfeits is most prevalent in
developing countries with a strong, inexpensive manufacturing
capability, including many nations throughout Asia (such as China and
Taiwan), although counterfeit goods are sold around the globe.
Counterfeits are manufactured to a lesser degree in developed countries.
(Source: International Trademark Association, http://www.inta.org/TrademarkBasics/FactSheets/Pages/Counterfeiting.aspx)
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Intellectual property rights are like any other property right. They allow creators, or owners, of patents, trademarks or copyrighted works to benefit from their own work or investment in a creation. These rights are outlined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which provides for the right to benefit from the protection of moral and material interests resulting from authorship of scientific, literary or artistic productions. The importance of intellectual property was first recognized in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883) and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886). Both treaties are administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
(Source: World Intellectual Property Organization, http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/)
U.S. Copyright Office
The United States Copyright Office, a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States. It is used by copyright title searchers who are attempting to clear a chain of title for copyrighted works.
With more than 60,000 employees, CBP is one of the world's largest law enforcement organizations. It is charged with keeping terrorists and their weapons out of the U.S. while facilitating lawful international travel and trade.
(Source: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, www.cbp.gov)
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is the federal agency for granting U.S. patents and registering trademarks. In doing this, the USPTO fulfills the mandate of Article I, Section 8, Clause 8, of the Constitution that the legislative branch "promote the progress of science and the useful arts by securing for limited times to inventors the exclusive right to their respective discoveries." The USPTO registers trademarks based on the commerce clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).